What is a disease
Disease is an impairment of the normal state of the plant or of
any of its components that interupts or modifies the
performance of the vital function, being a response to
environmental factors, to specific infective agents, to inherent
defects of the plant, or to combinations of these factors.
What is a fungus
Fungus is a multi-celled parasitic plant that has no leaves and true stems and roots. It lacks the green color. Its reproduction is by spores which are tiny seedlike structures that grow up to 1 mm in size. Mushroom, mold, and mildew are examples the mostly seen fungi.
Meanings of sign and symptom
Sign is the infectious disease itself and its products, examples are; fungal spores, fungal growths, sooty molds, cankers, galls, slimy ooze, and fishy odor
Symptom is the plant's response to the disease causing organism, examples are; changes in plant color, death of infected tissues, and wilting.
Signs and symptoms of fungal diseases
are the appearance of streaks on leaves, stems, and fruits that include early and late blights that mostly attack tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, pepper, and their relatives. Blight is a disease condition wherein an affected plant part is dried or dead but not rotten and has yellow or dead tissues. It also cause any sudden, severe, and extensive spotting, discoloration, or destruction of leaves, flowers, stems, or the entire plants and usually attacking young, growing tissues. The disease names are often coupled with the names of the affected part of the host; e.g., leaf blight, blossom blight, shoot blight, stem blight.
are dead areas on a stem or fruit surrounded by living cortical tissues.
are the large swelling of roots, stunted growth or death of cabbage and its relatives.
kills seedlings before soil emergence as well as the newly emerged ones. The stem rots occurred right on the soil line.
are outgrowths or swellings of un-organized plant cells.
are the white spots or patches on leaves, shoots, and other plan parts. Downy mildew kills the infected plant fast, while powdery mildew causes stunted growth, stressed plant, and reduced yield but not killing the plant.
are the killing of the rootlets that cause stunting and wilting.
are the orange, brownish, or white spots on the leaves and stems.
appear corky and cracked on infected fruit.
of yellow, orange, gray, brown, tan, purplish, red, or black on the plant parts are caused by several species of disease causing fungi like; anthracnose, Alternaria, Fusarium, Cercospora, etc.
are the silver swellings or galls on leaves, flowers, tassels, and stems. They enlarge, darkened, and break open to expose the masses of black fungal spores.
are fungal damages wherein the plants' water conducting vessels are plugged causing the leaves to wilt and die.
Prevention and control
- Always make a plan to grow a healthy crop
- Properly select plant cultivars that are fungal resistant and are common in your locality
- Have proper plant spacing by following the recommended planting distances. This enables light penetration and air flow
- Have a healthy and well-balanced soil
- Prune the overcrowded foliage
- Pick and cut the infected plant parts
- Uproot the heavily infected plants
- Always practice proper field sanitation
- Control the weeds
- Practice crop rotation by alternating crops of non-related family groups during every cropping season
- Spray your crops with homemade plant extracts and/or other homemade solutions like any of the following;