Grasses are monocots with a single cotyledon (one seed leaf that usually appear during germination) and are characterized by their long narrow leaves, parallel veins, paired husks, and tubular and jointed stems. The leaves are aligned in two rows on the stem.
What to do?
The following are the general recommendation on the preventative, cultural, and mechanical management of weeds. A combination of the various methods will surely give you better results. When in doubt, always ask for assistance from your local agriculturist office for advice.
- Proper seed selection. When possible use high quality seeds and certain crop varieties
- Thorough land preparation
- High seeding
rate. The extra plants allow the crop to shade weeds and make it more difficult for them to access nutrients and water.
- Narrow row spacing makes the crop more competitive than the weeds
- During the seed bed preparation, make sure that the seed bed is free of weeds. In the case of rice, some grasses are very similar to rice seedlings and they are often transplanted by mistake.
- Place the fertilizer in such a way that the crop has access to it but the weeds do not. This allows the crop to be more competitive with weeds.
- Regularly monitor the status of your crops
- Maintain cleanliness on the irrigation canals
- Keep the surroundings of your farm free of weeds, unless they are maintained and intended as habitats for natural enemies
- Proper soil tillage, fertilizer, and water management
- Green manuring
- Field sanitation
- Crop rotation
Mechanical and physical practices
- Hand weeding. The weeds are easier to control during their earlier growing period. If possible, do not let the weeds flower. Remove them from the field before they start to flower. Pulled weed bearing seeds should not be placed in compost pile for the seeds may not be killed in the process of decomposition. Compost
might be the source of the reintroduction of weeds onto your fields.
- Hoeing, mowing, and cutting
- Off-barring and hilling-up
- Regularly clean your farm tools
- Shading. Most weeds require high light intensity to grow, and high levels of shade prevent them from manufacturing their food.
- Grazing. Bringing farm animals to graze directly on the weeds
- Know how to identify the weeds. This is a very important aspect of weed management so that you are able to plan and execute the appropriate weed control activities
- Develop a monitoring plan. Monitor your field to know the kinds of weed and other pests currently present in the area, as well as the status of your crop
- Always keep farm records