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Preventive Control

Natural enemies


  1. Cotesia
  2. Trichogramma

Parasitized hornworm has white pouches protruding from its back. These are the cocoons of the parasitoids. The wasps' larvae feed inside the hornworm and kill the hornworm upon emerging.

Egg Predators

  1. Lacewing
  2. Ladybird beetle

Management and cultural practices

  1. Tilling the soil will expose pupae to ground predators and sunlight.
  2. Dill (Peucedanum graveolens) and borage/tailwort (Borago officinalis) are good trap crops while Basil and Marigold are good repellent crops (Golden Harvest Organics, 2003).
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